Knowledge Platform

MyGender Knowledge Platform is a website open to educators, young adults and the community in general. The platform resources aim to promote critical thinking through critical civic literacies and gender awareness, and good practices for the conscious use of mobile apps, raising awareness to datafication, digital surveillance, and intrusive technologies. In order to support gender justice, emancipatory practices and the incorporation of the conscious use of mobile apps, this platform has three main areas: resources, good practices and training.

Ana Aresta
ILGA Portugal
Ana Jorge
Universidade Lusófona/CICANT
Ana Perez Escoda
Universidad Antonio de Nebrija
Brita Ytre-Arne
Universitetet i Bergen
Carla Martins
Entidade Reguladora da Comunicação (ERC)
Carla Nunes
Agrupamento de Escolas Afonso de Paiva
Carolina Matos
City University of London
Cosimo Marco Scarcelli
Università di Padova
Despina Chronaki
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Eugenia Siapera
Dublin City University
Isabel Nina
Coordenadora Interconcelhia das Bibliotecas Escolares
Karen Ross
Newcastle University
Leonarda García-Jiménez
Universidad de Murcia/Colorado State University
Luís Pereira
Imperial College London
Maria João Cunha
Marta Ramos
Consultora em Direitos Humanos
Paloma Contreras Pulido
Universidad Internacional De La Rioja
Patrícia Silveira
Universidade Europeia/CECS
Ranjana Das

Surrey University
Sandra Ribeiro
Comissão para a Cidadania e a Igualdade de Género (CIG)
Sara De Vuyst
Universiteit Gent
*being updated

The Digital Intimacies project comes out of a partnership between King’s College London, the University of Edinburgh and the Terrence Higgins Trust to explore how queer men use smartphones to negotiate their intimate lives. From the project arises this interesting digital zine that seeks to deconstruct stereotypes and myths, promoting critical thinking about the use of smartphones and apps in mediating intimate relationships.
Since 2010, “The Gender Perspective in Research and Teaching Award” is being organised on an annual basis by the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC). The award aims to recognise and make visible existing research projects and teaching practices that stand out for integrating a gender dimension. The award fosters synergies with other initiatives undertaken by the university such as gender training and conferences. The award brings more visibility to gender issues in research and teaching.
Every five years since 1995, GMMP – Global Media Monitoring Project – research has taken the pulse of selected indicators of gender in the news media, including women’s presence in relation to men, gender bias and stereotypes in news stories and other content. It is the largest advocacy initiative on changing the representation of women in the world’s news media. In 2020, and after reuniting each country’s study – the Portuguese one is conducted by the co-PI of MyGender Professor Rita Basílio de Simões – it was concluded that only 25% of world news have women as the subjects or sources of information.
CIGComissão para a Igualdade e a Cidadania (Commission for Equality and Citizenship) – is the Portuguese national organism responsible for the promotion and defence of equality between women and men, seeking to respond to the profound social and political changes in society regarding citizenship and gender equality. In 2019, CIG published the “Guião de Boas Práticas de Prevenção e Combate à Violência Doméstica e de Género nas Empresas” (Guide for Good Practices to Prevent and Combat Domestic and Gender-Based Violence in Companies) as part of the Government’s #PortugalContraAViolência campaign to mark the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women of 25 November, which can be accessed here.
DigiPippi is a digital and social community from Denmark for girls between 7 and 13 years who want to learn about technology, IT and digital opportunities, who’s aim is to engage girls in the world of technology. They are based on pedagogical and educational principles and organize tech workshops, or even mother and daughter tech brunches, in an approach that looks at the girls’ habits, their role models and the way they interact, especially in technological terms. Since Denmark is a country in which young people’s educational choices are still quite gender-segregated (in 2016, women comprised only 27% of IT students, and just 11% of the new software development students at the IT University Copenhagen), DigiPippi intends to celebrates diversity while also allowing girls to see themselves as they are: strong, resourceful and talented tech girls.
Created in 2008, Zeroviolenza is an Italian association that seeks public debate on the way women are presented in the media, which aims to provide media professionals with direct feedback on the way they portray women and report on gender issues. Through its activity, it promotes a civil conscience that recognises the sexual and cultural identity of men and women and their freedom of choice in the family, social and political spheres. It encompasses which is a project of independent information aimed at building a culture of responsibility for understanding social dynamics and conflicts that publishes original editorial content, and Zeroviolenza Onlus, which organises courses in schools in suburban areas of Italy to support adults who care for children and adolescents, moving from information to more concrete training.
La Fabrique Numérique de Gonesse is part of France’s digital strategy and is an intensive personal, civic and professional remobilisation programme aimed at 16-25 year olds who have left school without a diploma or qualification. Launched in 2015, the programme uses digital technologies, mass communication, digital production, network and project management as empowerment tools to tackle the problem of school dropout, especially in deprived neighbourhoods. After three cycles, the remobilisation rate is 90%. 70% of the trainees have returned to the educational system, and 20% access their first employment opportunity within 6 months of completing the programme. The pedagogical work of La Fabrique Numérique de Gonesse is based on three axes: digital production; Internet; and relational skills.
AKKA VITBOK (“AKKA white book”) is the result of the gender integrated leadership programmes (AKKA) created in 2004 by the prestigious and historical Lund University, founded in 1666. AKKA programmes seek to raise awareness and knowledge by providing methods and tools for structural change to achieve sustainable gender equality. From 2004 to 2014, five AKKA programmes were offered to 150 senior academics at Lund University (Sweden) (of which 37 were men). The changes that AKKA programmes have achieved at Lund University, have inspired other universities, such as those in Uppsala and Växjö, to create similar programmes that move towards gender equality in academia.
PAWEN – Pan African Women Empowerment Network – was founded by Oluwaseyi Kehinde-Peters and is a non-profit organisation that aims to build capacity with a focus on leadership and economic empowerment of African women. PAWEN’s major mission is to create an ecosystem that directly empowers one million African women with skills, connections and confidence through different programmes that provide a community sense of women’s development in the economic and business realms.
The Centre for Social Studies (CES) of the University of Coimbra (UC) joined the commemorations of the International Day of Older Persons by releasing the first results of the research project REMEMBER – Experiences of LGBTQ Older People in Democratic Portugal (1974-2020). According to this study, the Portuguese LGBTQ+ population above 60 years old, whose lives have been strongly affected by an oppressive past, exhibit as consequences relational loneliness and fragile care networks. The study warns that sexuality in old age remains a taboo subject, particularly in the LGBTQ+ population. Still with the project under development, it alerts to the need for the design of intervention measures on the ground that bring relief, justice and repair to the elderly LGBTQ+ people, so that in this way, growing old can be rethought through a gender and sexuality perspective.
Since 2020, the Portuguese Platform for Women’s Rights (PpDM) has started the implementation of the European project “Mobilise against Sexism!”, which aims to promote knowledge and implementation of the historic recommendation of the Council of Europe (2019) that established the first international legal definition of sexism. The project focuses on multiple discrimination from an intersectional perspective, promoting public debate on the prevalence of sexism and its current manifestations, which are multiple and vary from context to context. As part of this project, the campaign “Sexism: Notice it, Talk about it, Stop it!” was developed, whose materials can be found here, and which the Portuguese Platform for Women’s Rights intends to be a significant contribution to the eradication of sexism in Portugal.
The Festival Género ao Centro (Gender at the Centre), also known as Festival sobre Igualdade de Género para Crianças, Jovens e Famílias (Gender Equality for Children, Youth and Families Festival), has as main focus the promotion of gender equality and the defence of human rights among young people, especially children aged 3 to 18 years old. The second edition of this festival takes place in Coimbra from 24 to 26 November 2022, and is organised by the Catrapum Catrapeia association. Among shows, creative writing and poetry workshops, poetry slam performance sessions, debates and conversations, the Festival Género ao Centro brings an artistic perspective as a contribution to the training of “new generations and educators for a new world with respect for human rights and the freedom to be whoever we want to be, regardless of sex, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, age, culture, community, with or without special needs”.
ILGA-Europe is an independent non-governmental organisation that brings together more than 600 organisations from 54 countries in Europe and Central Asia, part of the international organisation ILGA, which advocates for the rights of LGBTQIA+ people and seeks to unite activists and allies. ILGA-Europe has published its “Guide for Journalists”, a document with recommendations for media professionals reporting on LGBTQIA+ issues, people and communities. This guide aims to contribute to the quality and pluralism of the media and journalism landscape in Europe and Central Asia, as well as to support the work of journalists in the field, especially those for whom LGBTQIA+ news is not their main target. This document contains practical advice on how to report on the human rights of LGBTQIA+ people, how to speak with and about LGBTQIA+ issues, language and pronouns, but also other specific recommendations for developing stories involving transgender and intersex people.
ENGENDER – Integration of Gender Studies in curricula and pedagogical practices in public university education in Portugal” is a project funded by FCT – Foundation for Science and Technology through national funds (PTDC/SOC-ASO/7173/2020). Based at the Centre for Social Studies (CES) of the University of Coimbra (UC), ENGENDER takes into account the social and political changes that are altering academic work, proposing to map the presence and role of Women’s, Gender and Feminist Studies (WFS) in the various disciplinary fields of higher education in Portugal.
The Spanish initiative “Cómo el machismo marcó nuestra adolescencia” (How machismo has marked our adolescence) is an interactive project created by RTVE Lab, with which a person can put their year of birth and watch some (unfortunate) highlights on patriarchal media milestones that are often not deconstructed and critically analysed. This simple interactive project helps to demonstrate how mediatised machismo impacts determinant stages of personal development, focusing, specifically, on adolescence. To try it, in Spanish, just click here.
KINDER is a Gender-Responsive Pedagogy in Children Education (GRP-CE), that targets the educational professionals working with children between the ages of 3 to 12 years old. It is a project that builds on the assumption that learning processes play a determinant role in the socialization of boys and girls and has a major impact on children’s future life options, including career choices. KINDER’S last event will take place on the 1st of June at the Centro de Informação Urbana de Lisboa, under the title “Que género de Educação queremos? Desafiar estereótipos na educação e na primeira infância” (What kind of education do we want? Challenging stereotypes in education and early childhood). More info at this link.
The GlobalGrace – Global Gender & Cultures of Equality project, financed by RCUK’s Global Challenge Research Fund (2018-2021), took on the goal of “identifying and mobilizing artistic interventions, curations and public exhibitions that would enable research and build gender inclusive approaches in the field of cultural and artistic expressions.” The consortium includes universities and non-profit organizations from Bangladesh, Brazil, Mexico, the Philippines, South Africa, and the United Kingdom.
In Brazil, the project focused on “Decolonizing knowledge and redoing masculinities through art: cultures of equality in the urban peripheries of Rio de Janeiro.” The work focused on the “intersection between art and gender in the production of equitable and non-violent masculinities in urban peripheries.” This resource results from the discussion of masculinities and markers of difference in light of the dimension of the body equating and proposing changes along the way.
Founded in 2000, Mupan (Women in Action in the Pantanal) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization that is a main partner in Brazil for the Women 2030 Program (Sustainable Development Goals). It is a program with about 100 volunteers that aims to promote women as a multiplier agent, locally, regionally and nationally, in the context of gender and the environment, strengthening them socially, economically and politically, in the name of sustainability.
Since 2011 the University of Beira Interior has a Gender Equality Plan – which was named UBIgual. It was the first university in Portugal to develop a Plan for Gender Equality, and since it was created, every year they make reports for gender equality. The Project UBIgual – Gender Equality Plan of the University of Beira Interior (UBI) ran from 2009 to 2013 in the University of Beira Interior, through its Centre of Social Studies, and was co-financed by the European Union and the Portuguese State.
The Global Gender Gap Report 2021, developed by the World Economic Forum, is a document based on recent methodologies and statistical data from international organisations and organisms. This particular report looks at how the COVID-19 pandemic has created and increased barriers in building inclusive societies. Pre-existing gender gaps between men and women have been asymmetrically widened by the health crisis, even though women have been at the frontline of crisis management as key workers. This paper points to the need to develop gender-sensitive recovery strategies to try to offset the losses of 2020, as it concludes that the closing of that gender gap increased by a generation in the pandemic year, from an estimated 99.5 years to 135.6 years. The document can be accessed here.
Nista was the name of a €1.3 million EU-funded media awareness-raising campaign run in 2010-2012 in Malta, which intended to change the very low levels of women’s participation in the Maltese labour market. Nista – meaning “I can” in Maltese – aimed to encourage more women to enter and remain in the labour market through an information campaign that spanned over two years of TV, radio and other media. This project was implemented in a four phases strategic plan, which first raised awareness of the issue across society, secondly challenged stereotypes, thirdly promoted men’s roles in the family, and finally encouraged employers to improve work-life balance by highlighting best practice and the benefits of reconciliation. The campaign had a noticeable impact on women’s employment participation and better awareness about childcare.
Specialy developed in the rural area of Montichiari, Italy, that has been deeply affected by the economic crisis, #genera_azioni is a project focused on families as the principal victims of crisis. Developed by a mix of public entities and non-profut organizations, it intends to tackle poverty (economic difficulty, lack of relationships, unemployment, social vulnerability) with a generative, community-based model of welfare. This project acts on the community by focusing on the four centres of many communities: home, work, the future of young people and the development of a strong sense of community by citizens. With an integrated approach to develop inclusion, #genera_azioni promotes a new kind of welfare and a different idea of “improved quality of life”, based on the importance of relationships and sharing resources, information and time. Connecting the digital leaning young people with the real world problems of its area, #genera_azioni is contributing to the existence of a community sense that does not forget the ones in need, but in fact creates the basis for thinking and developing integrated solutions.
The ABCLGBTQIA+ project is a collaboration between the television channel Fox Life and the ILGA Portugal Association, which provides the meaning of 37 words in various formats (static, audio and video), for free download, so that they may be used for the most diverse purposes, by any person, entity or institution, national or international brand (anywhere in the world). In this way, it seeks to pay homage and make a commitment to the promotion of gender identity literacy and to combat intolerance and prejudice. The accessibility of the pieces passes by the claimed desire to inform as many people as possible. Because learning is part of it.
BrainPop was created in 1999 with the aim of explaining complicated concepts creatively to young people, and continues to develop learning tools, especially with digital resources. BrainPOP has developed a set of resources that guide students in becoming aware of digital citizen participation. The digital citizenship page features videos, games, quizzes, challenges and activities such as code-building, specific to each concept relevant to the area of digital citizenship. The idea is to aid learning, with or without a teaching plan, on important topics through the interactivity of digital.
M.ARS Virtual Women Art Museum is a museum operating in the field of participatory and multimedia art, social museology and gender studies, highlighting the role of Women in Art. The acronym M.ARS combines the letter “m” for Museum and the word “ars” which means art in Latin, thus seeking the deconstruction of the common place of patriarchal root, establishing an interactive museological platform for online and real-time artistic production. M.ARS, although digital, is mainly developed at the University of Évora, and has as core values gender equality, digital inclusion and social commitment.
The elections in Switzerland in October 2019 are known as the “women’s elections”, as these elections have resulted in a far greater representation of women in Switzerland’s two parliamentary houses. In part, this representative advance has come about because of “Helvetia Calls!”, a new cross-party movement to get women into politics in Switzerland. Helvetia – the female icon of Swiss democracy – is calling on women to stand for political office. Compared to previous elections, there has been an increase in women’s representation of around 43%. “Helvetia Calls!” is an example that inspires change in political representation, despite the fact that the political landscape in Switzerland still has mostly men in positions of power.
Media In Action (MIA) is a part of the European Comission co-funded pilot project – Media Literacy For All – Grant agreement no LC00632803. MIA has developed work directly with teachers, librarians, teacher trainers and other educators. With an enphasis on digital storytelling, media and news literacy, MIA has developed activity over five different european countries, which includes Portugal. The Portuguese delegacy has the coordination of Maria José Brites, and it’s team is constitued by researchers of the MyGender project, including Inês Amaral, the PI of the MyGender project. The activity developed throughout the Media In Action project can be consulted here.
The CIGCommission for Citizenship and Gender Equality – is once again launching a campaign to mark the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women, which will be on November 25th. In 2022, CIG uses as a motto #PortugalMaisIgual, with a wide range of regional initiatives taking place across the country. Therefore, it has created a microsite – visitable here – where it is possible to consult all the information, distributed by district, which focuses on this goal of eradicating violence against women in Portugal. Violence against women and domestic violence are public crimes and collective responsibilities. CIG encourages all victims to call 800 202 148 or send an SMS to 3060.
In times of the frenzy of the men’s football World Cup, in Qatar, nothing more fitting than to refer the work developed by the Human Rights Chanel of the European Council, on the question “What about investing in women and girls?”. Alerting to data such as the fact that women make up only 31% of the total of federated athletes in clubs and associations, they seek to promote gender equality in the sports field, having developed a series of homework assignments, such as this one in which they ask themselves: “how can sports organisations and the media work towards gender sensitive communication?”.
Creative Communities for Digital Inclusion” (“Comunidades Criativas para a Inclusão Digital” in portuguese) is a project name of INCoDe.2030 (a government programme that aims to develop public policies, actions and initiatives to strengthen digital skills, transversally, to the entire Portuguese society), included in its Axis 3 of action, which focuses on inclusion. In this way, Creative Communities for Digital Inclusion seeks to identify the difficulties in digital inclusion and contribute to the attribution of digital skills to the Portuguese population. In 2019, 10 local/municipal pilot projects were created under the Creative Communities for Digital Inclusion, decentralising the effort for transversal digitalisation of the country.
The Freelance Journalism Assembly is a free-of-charge programme designed to connect and empower freelance journalists in Europe. They have organized conferences, meetings and resources. Regarding such developed resources, the Freelance Journalism Assembly has a series of podcasts tackling issues under the “Freelancing for Journalists” tag, with more than 50 episodes already aired. We recommend one particular episode, concerning “Gender and Identity” which can be listened here.
The REBOOT Project is a young NGO (Non-Governmental Organisation), composed of volunteers, which aims to provide people and organisations with access to tools and information that may enable their empowerment. Thus, it seeks to be a space for reflection and discussion, based on accessible and quality information, in order to trigger change in society. They believe that the youth of the project “is synonymous with a breath of fresh air and daring” that they use to transmit information, being co-agents of structural change for the social, environmental and economic sustainability of the planet. The different initiatives they carry out can be found on the project website, while the ongoing scientific and sustainability communication can be seen here.


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API | Application Programming Interface
Application Programming Interface is a set of patterns and standardized protocols that allow creating and integrating platforms. APIs simplify the way developers integrate new components of applications. For example, each time an app such as Facebook is used, a message is sent or the weather forecast is viewed on the smartphone, that user is utilizing an API.
Social Media
Internet-based informatic technology that works in networks and communities, allowing users to share ideas, thoughts and information, mostly through posts. The overall content is created by such users. Therefore, it requires people to create a user profile in order to be able to post. There are more than 4.5 billion users worldwide. The most wellknown examples are Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube and TikTok.
Socially constructed set of roles, expectations and characteristic expressions of someone. It is a social construction historically linked to the sexual binary idea of male/female, and consequent understanding of people as man/woman. However, gender goes beyond binary and sexual constructs, just as it is not static, and can change over time, varying its social understandings within and between different cultures. Therefore it is neither biologically determined nor forever fixed. It influences how people see themselves, but also how they see others. It thus impacts how people act and interact in society.
A form of psychological and emotional abuse through which the abuser manipulates the victim’s perception, distorting their reality in order to generate feelings of doubt and confusion in their mind. Information is distorted, omitted and contested in order to favour the abuser’s intended narrative or to simply make the victim doubt themself and their own memory and mental sanity. Therefore, it embarks a wide spectrum of acts and levels of premeditation to disorient the victim.
The simplest way to explain the term “cyberbullying” is to conceptualise it as a set of virtual ways of committing bullying. It is thus a set of practices involving the use of information and communication technologies to support deliberate, repeated and hostile behaviour perpetrated by an individual or group with the intention of harming the other. It generally affects children and adolescents, being a perverse and problematic form of attack, since it goes far beyond the school’ walls. There has been a high growth in cyberbullying practices, due to the growing weight of the online and digital world – namely social networks and other online platforms – in everyone’s lives, including in the lives of children and adolescents.
These are small files, within the framework of the HTTP communication protocol used on the Internet, which are stored in browsers that store preferences and other information used on websites and pages of those websites that have been visited. Each time a website is accessed, one or more cookies are sent back to the servers on which the website is hosted. They save people’s settings on certain websites and may sometimes be used to monitor how visitors access and interact with websites. Cookies serve useful, efficient and sometimes essential functions on the Internet. In particular, they can also be used to store information that the user has previously entered into form fields, such as names, addresses, passwords, and card numbers, for later usages.
A concept popularly used to describe a person who practises some kind of computer intrusion, which aims to discover and modify the innermost aspects of devices, programmes and computer networks and software. Although hacking (the activity carried out by hackers) generally has an illegal connotation in the media, hacking can also be used legally, particularly when police authorities use hackers to gather evidence on criminals.
Patriarchy corresponds to a social organisation/system, which literally translates as the authority of the man. Nowadays, the term is mainly used to refer to the domination and power of men over women and other people, which goes beyond the domestic sphere, including a predominance in situations such as political leadership roles, moral authority and any kind of social privilege. It characterizes the system by which women are kept subordinated in various ways, which translates into the superiority of men in various social spaces.
QR Code
QR Code (Quick Response) is a type of dot matrix/ two-dimensional barcode. It was created in 1994 and became popular because it has a fast readability and a large storage capacity compared to normal barcodes. The QR code consists of black modules arranged in a square pattern on a white background. Everyone with a smartphone that has a camera on their phone equipped with the right scanning application can scan the QR Code “image” for various functionalities, be it displaying text, geographic coordinates, contact data, web pages, etc.
Word that derives from the term avatāra, original from Sanskrit, which symbolizes something like terrestrial descent. In the context of media and IT, this term symbolises a representation of oneself, usually in virtual media, with the aim of personification, to demonstrate a self-image in virtual environments, which may or may not have a more real correspondence. It is thus a typically customizable graphic element, chosen by those who use certain technology, to represent themselves, namely in cyberspace, as in certain games and virtual communities,
Wide range of depreciative attitudes and practices, which can even be violent, that are directed towards trans people or people who are socially perceived as trans, regardless of whether or not they self-identify as trans. The suffix “phobia” implies a fear or even repulsion of transgender people. Trans people are usual targets of prejudice and discrimination regarding the way they express their gender. These prejudices and discriminatory acts are born from the illusory view that being trans is not part of the natural human condition, but rather that it is some kind of disease or mental disorder. Hence, it results in the condemnation and even demonisation of trans people.
We usually refer to “privacy” as the right to seclude information and personal data by individuals, which, therefore constitute private data. Such a right is recognized in documents like the Human Rights’ European Convention or the Portuguese Republic Constitution. However, on the online world, that right is under several threats. In an individual account on a social media website, default privacy settings allow a lot of information to be seen online to whoever visits that profile.
Generally meaning the quality or property of an object that defines its possible uses or makes clear how it can or should be used, therefore being what the environment offers the individual. In the digital world, an affordance can be understood as what a user can do with an object based on the user’s capabilities.
Set of structural and functional characteristics of biological and physiological scope that distinguish male (male sex) and female (female sex) classifications.
It can be described as persistent harassment, and includes a set of behaviours that constitute a form of violence related to the invasion of privacy by someone, through harassment tactics and various means. In the digital world, stalking takes place mainly by telephone calls, by sending messages or emails, by publishing facts or rumours on Internet sites (cyberstalking), etc. Stalking tends to present a violent narrative of an almost romanticised nature, especially in the initial contacts, which may cause some confusion in the victim.
The term “cybercrime” emerged in Lyon, France, in the late 1990s, after a meeting of a subgroup of the G8 countries that analysed and discussed the crimes promoted via electronic devices or through the dissemination of information over the internet. In Portugal, it is considered a crime and is provided for and punished under the Cybercrime Law (Law 109/2009 of 15 September), which encompasses all forms of criminal activity that are conducted via the Internet, a computer system and/or computer technology. Thus, it includes things like transferring illegal music files, identity theft and hate crimes, spreading viruses to other computers, or stealing confidential business information and data via the web.
A set of fraudulent techniques designed to steal valuable personal data, such as credit card numbers, passwords, account details or other important information. Phishing can be practiced by email, messaging platforms, SMS, and others. However, it is most often carried out by email, in the form of seemingly real messages. People are misled by communications that appear to come from social networks, auction sites, online payment processors, shops and, above all, banks. These communications suggest, for example, that a person’s account has been compromised and that they need to resubmit their account and registration details in order to unlock it. It is important to remember that banks never ask for this type of information by email. Often, these emails link to websites that appear to be from the bank in question, but are not. Critical and attentive training and education in identifying phishing communications seems to be the best way for a person to protect themselves from these attempts to steal personal and confidential data and information.
Term used to describe the social imposition of the belief that sexual orientations that are somehow different from heterosexuality are not seen as normal. It is an institutionalized process that ignores the diversity of sexual orientations, identities, gender expressions and sexual characteristics that exist in society. It results in the marginalization, segregation and sometimes persecution of people who, as a result of their sexual orientation, are not perceived as the norm, i.e., do not fit into the heteronormative standard.
Sexism is any expression (attitude, word, image, gesture) which is based on the assumption that some people, identified with a certain sex, generally masculine, are superior to the remaining ones. Thus, it typically involves the inferiorisation of women, either individually or even in a group, and which occurs in the public or private sphere, electronically or otherwise, with the aim of, or at least having as some kind of consequence offending the intrinsic dignity or rights of a person or a group of persons, causing physical, sexual, psychological or socio-economic harm or suffering, creating an intimidating hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment, hindering the autonomy and full enjoyment of one’s human rights or perpetuating and reinforcing gender stereotypes.
A crack is a small piece of software used to break a security system of some kind. It works by illegally copying (usually commercial) software, breaking the functionality of intellectual property protection. It is mostly used to turn limited versions of programs/software into full ones (either in functionality or usage time, the so-called shareware) by removing or bypassing the security system that limits the usage or checks the serial number.
An asexual person tends to not experience sexual attraction. Asexuality is often conceptualised as a broad spectrum sexual orientation in which people show little, if any, sexual attraction to anyone regardless of their gender identity. This does not mean that an asexual person may not have romantic attraction to another person, as well as enjoy touching and have the desire to be in an affectionate relationship. The understanding of asexuality rests on the differentiated conceptualization between romantic attraction and sexual attraction, just as it requires the understanding that the asexual population is very heterogeneous in terms of the varied reasons why this identification makes sense to each asexual person.
Media Literacy
As expressed in Directive (EU) 2018/1808 of the European Parliament and of the Council, the concept of “media literacy” refers to the skills, knowledge and understanding that allow people to access and use media critically, effectively and safely. It thus encompasses technical and technological knowledge, but also the ability to access, create and criticise complex realities and to recognise the difference between facts and opinions.
APP (application)
App is diminutive for application, which is a type of software (informatic program) that intends to facilitate the realization of a task on a smartphone, computer or any suitable device like smart TVs or tablets. Generally, it has the purpose of simplifying access and processes for users.
List of rules that need to be followed to solve a problem. For that reason, is a set of sequenced instructions that allow that an informatic technology like a computer interpret facts and act accordingly. A set of finite steps that make an objective achieveable, similarly to a cooking recipe. Algorithms allow the automization of processes on informatic technologies, therefore, saving time.
There is a whole set of social, political, ideological and philosophical movements that focus on the recognition of women’s absolute freedom, with equal rights as their main objective. Throughout history, different and specific feminist movements have been developed, with different views both on the ideal of society and the way to achieve such an ideal. That is to say, they differ with respect to various factors according to the specificity of the situation of women in the world, the particularities of each culture and each society. However, and despite the specificities of each movement, they are all part of a global phenomenon guided by the same philosophical basis and the political objective of equality.
Short for “robots”, computer programs that run without supervision and are designed to simulate human actions repeated in a standard manner, just as a robot would do. They are crucial in the present-day informatic composition of softwares, as they analyse and operationalise information from files and servers at an extremely high speed, much higher than human capacity. Depending on their use, they may or may not be considered illicit, depending on whether the actions they perform are intended to disseminate spam or to falsely increase the number of views of a website, for example. On a more malicious level, bots can be used for purposes such as stealing confidential information – either personal or sensitive -, accessing contact lists or controlling devices for subsequent larger-scale cyber/informatic attacks.
SPAM is a phenomenon that has developed with the expansion of the internet. It consists of sending multiple unsolicited messages, by the use of messaging or email systems, filling the mailboxes of users and increasing the volume of traffic on the network. SPAM can be motivated by various purposes such as commercial (by advertising something), fraudulent, or the insistence in contacting someone to the point of constituting a form of abuse. A person who creates and sends SPAM is called a “spammer”.
Echo chambers
The term “echo chambers”, sometimes used as a synonym for “filter bubbles” or “bubble filters” is a metaphorical description of a situation in which information, ideas or beliefs are amplified and reinforced by communication and repetition within a concrete defined system. The existence of echo chambers in the digital world, in particular in social media, has been continuously proven, as this term describes any linked and closed media space that has the potential to amplify the messages delivered there and isolate them from any messages that contradict them. The phenomenon of echo chambers occurs when people are more subject – or even only subject – to information that confirms their opinions and beliefs on a certain subject.
In the context of the internet, and despite it being a somewhat subjective and all-encompassing term, a troll is a person whose online behaviour destabilises a discussion. Through posting, commenting or other forms of online activity, a troll seeks to inflame a digital community, whether on social media, in online forums, video games, etc. The troll’s desire is to provoke emotional responses or even manipulate the perceptions of others. The popularisation of this term has led to the popularisation of terms such as “trolling” or the verb “to troll”.
Femicide, also referred to as feminicide, is a term for murder that is motivated by misogyny, which purports to be a gender-based hate crime, and is directed at cis-gender women, transgender women and/or people socially read as women. A term associated with situations such as domestic violence and related to the aversion to the victim’s gender (misogyny), it can be simplistically defined, according to Diana E. H. Russell, as “the killing of women by men because they are women”.
Bug is a term that comes from English, in which this word means “insect”. It is believed that the term was coined by Thomas Edison when an insect caused reading problems in his phonograph in 1878. The term “bug” has become popular in recent decades, especially with the digitalisation of media, becoming a term that is computer jargon referring to the dreaded unexpected failures that occur in the execution or use of some software or hardware. In this way, it is a broad expression for any error or failure in the execution of a program, harming or making its operation impossible.
Term relating to a person whose gender identity corresponds to the binary gender (woman or man) assigned to them at birth, due to the identification of their sexual characteristics. As an example, think of someone who identifies as a woman and was referred to as a woman at birth, as a result of the sexual characteristics she was born with. “Cisgender” is a term that can be understood as opposite to the term transgender.
People, institutions, places, etc., that actively seek the creation of a comfortable environment for people who are discriminated due to their belonging/identification to certain categories (such as age, class, gender, racialisation, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity, nationality, religion, etc.). We speak of allied things or ally people when they, even if they do not have a sense of belonging to these identity categories, are associated with struggles for the defence of the human rights of historically, economically and socially excluded populations.
Dating Apps
Dating apps are a category of mobile applications whose translation into Portuguese varies between various terms. Dating apps are a category of mobile applications that provide online services enabling people to get to know each other, usually by allowing them to see one (or more) photographs and some characteristics about the other person. Whether they are intended to generate romantic, friendship or sexual connections – casual or not – this category of applications is defined by connecting strangers through the Internet, via algorithms that analyse geo-social information. The category of dating apps has emerged strongly since 2012, when Tinder, the most popular dating app, was launched. However, others have followed these steps, sometimes targeted at specific communities or social minorities, with other known examples being the cases of Bumble, Grindr, Happn, OkCupid, PlentyOfFish or Badoo.